There is a constant battle in the world whether a designer exists in the grand scheme of things. If so, did God ‘really’ create the universe and everything in it? What does science say about Creation? Does science point to a creator?
This article intends to give an overview that there is in fact a Designer, and that all things are fine-tuned according to precise laws. That is the laws of the universe are finely tuned to host life on earth. These physical laws in the universe reflect God’s unchanging nature, His omniscience, and His sovereignty over all things. All of creation has been beautifully designed by Him and has no other choice but to obey His decrees.
The Universe as a Machine
People have gazed in awe of the heavens since the beginning of existence. However, in the last four centuries, scientists have treated the universe as a machine. We have looked at it, studied it, pondered its mysteries, argued over its complexity, and even simulated various models of the universe. However, despite its complexity, the universe seems to be constituted with matter and mysterious elements that we are still trying to figure out. As mysterious as it may seem, our universe has but a few observed parts: leptons, quarks, and the four fundamental forces.1
This intrinsic “machined” universe is so well-designed that the slightest alteration would cause it to cease to exist. If we look further, questions scientists ponder would be something like this: “Why do basic particles have a particular value of mass?”2 At present, there are no answers. What we do know is that if these values were altered, molecules would not assemble and thus, life would cease to exist.
The more we investigate the heavens, it is evident that the Designer has fine-tuned it, and all of creation points back to Him. Some in academia have stated that there is “something” behind these “random processes.”3
“[There] is for me powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all…. It seems as though somebody has fine-tuned nature’s numbers to make the Universe…. The impression of design is overwhelming.” (Paul Davies, Physicist)4
“……we cannot ignore the fact that to many, the fact that the universe is finely tuned for intelligent life shows the hand of the creator who set the dials.” (Geraint Lewis, Cosmologist)5
“In short, numerous features of our universe seem fantastically fine-tuned for the existence of intelligent life. While some physicists still hold out for a “natural” explanation, many others are now coming to grips with the notion that our universe is profoundly unnatural, with no good explanation other than the Anthropic Principle—the universe is in this exceedingly improbable state, because if it weren’t, we wouldn’t be here to discuss the fact.” (Jonathan Borwein & David Bailey, Mathematicians)6
The Cause of Life in the Universe
Imagine briefly or even question the various possibilities that would cause life to exist: Firstly, “Why would life on earth only be possible within a particular distance to the sun, at a particular position of our solar system within our galaxy, the Milky Way?” This is known as the “Goldilocks Zone”7 where Earth is located at the precise distance from the Sun and with the right planets and moons swirling around it. With this idea, we are now searching for exoplanets in other habitable-like environments in the Universe.
Come to think of it, life wouldn’t be possible if there were no moon, or if the total mass density of matter in the universe were greater or lesser. If the rate of expansion of our Universe were slightly faster or slightly slower, life would not be possible.
Could it be that although we cannot ascertain that the Earth is the center of the universe as during the Ptolemaic era, it is the very reason for us to look at the rest of the universe? Could it be that indeed, this Designer had “life” in mind, and therefore, purposed all things to work towards it to be possible?
The Precision Within the Universe
The laws of chemistry explain the physical structure of the elements. If the constants, such as the mass of quarks and leptons ruling our universe were to have the tiniest variation, things would not be as they are today. Another example would be Einstein’s famous cosmological constant.8 If the outward-pushing pressure of the universe were to have the tiniest variation, then gravity would cause the matter in the Universe to collapse unto itself.
Current human technology could not possibly engineer to achieve the degrees of precision we see in the Universe, and the human mind cannot even fathom such incredible fine-tuning. For example, Ulf Meissner, a renowned nuclear physicist at the University of Bonn, Germany ran simulations of a basic model of the universe. In one of the simulations, two constants were altered: (i) the average mass of the up and down quarks and (ii) the strength of the electromagnetic force between charged particles.9 Hence, Meissner’s comment, “The Universe we live in is characterized by certain parameters that take specific values that appear to be remarkably fine-tuned to make life, including on Earth, possible.”10
The Laws of Quantum Physics
Bound by the laws of quantum physics, scientists are able to tell the characteristics of an atom by defining its outermost electrons. Chemistry is tied to the physics of matter. If the ratio of electrons to protons (1:1836) were larger or smaller, it would not be able to assist in the formation of molecules.
The formation of atoms is also tied to the electromagnetic coupling constant which is instrumental in the binding of electrons and protons. Any larger, electrons would be too tight to bond, and if smaller, electrons would be loose to form atoms.
Hence, the goldilocks effect: Everything is tuned to be just right. The laws of physics has been ingrained by God to form matter and the laws of chemistry to work just as how He willed it to be.
If the laws of the universe were not constant, life as we know it wouldn’t be possible. This is known as the anthropic principle, one of nature’s primary laws. Even the law of biogenesis explains that life comes from life. Organisms produce organisms of their “kind.” The workings of Louis Pasteur show that life produces a previous life. There are no other known exceptions that give a universal understanding of the formation of life.
Genesis 1 explains that God created all “kinds” of animals and they were to breed after their kind. Chance tells us that we were created by non-living chemicals and this is incompatible with the law of biogenesis.
And the heavens will praise Your wonders, O Lord; Your faithfulness also in the assembly of the saints. (Psalms 89:5, NKJV)
As Christians, we can give glory to God, along with the heavenly hosts, for His extraordinary creation. (Psalm 19; Psalm 115:1)
As we admire scientific discoveries, we learn that physical laws in the universe reflect God’s unchanging nature, His omniscience, and His sovereignty over all things. All of creation has been beautifully designed by Him and has no other choice but to obey His decrees. Nothing in the universe goes against what God has already set in place. He has made it in such a way that all these laws work together to serve His purpose. Truly I say to you, Abba Father is simply amazing!
- A universe made for me? Physics, fine-tuning and life. Cosmos Magazine https://cosmosmagazine.com/physics/a-universe-made-for-me-physics-fine-tuning-and-life/ (2016).
- A More Finely Tuned Universe. Inside Science https://www.insidescience.org/news/more-finely-tuned-universe (2015).
- Barnes, L. A. The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life. Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 29, 529–564 (2012).
- Paul Davies. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Nave-html/Faithpathh/Davies.html.
- When science and philosophy collide in a ‘fine-tuned’ universe. https://phys.org/news/2014-04-science-philosophy-collide-fine-tuned-universe.html.
- Goldilocks Zone. Exoplanet Exploration: Planets Beyond our Solar System https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/resources/323/goldilocks-zone.
- Landsman, K. The Fine-Tuning Argument: Exploring the Improbability of Our Existence. in The Challenge of Chance: A Multidisciplinary Approach from Science and the Humanities (eds. Landsman, K. & van Wolde, E.) 111–129 (Springer International Publishing, 2016). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-26300-7_6.
- Meißner, U.-G. Anthropic considerations in nuclear physics. Sci. Bull. 60, 43–54 (2015).
- New evidence for anthropic theory that fundamental physics constants underlie life-enabling universe. EurekAlert! http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-01/scp-nef011415.php.